So many Portuguese conversos ‘morphed’ into elitist Ashkenazi bankers.
And also, ‘ashkenazi’ rabbis and Av Beit Dins.
Which is kinda shocking – to me – because remember that these Portuguese conversos had for the most part been living as outwardly pious Catholics for well over a hundred years.
That means no brit mila, no kosher food, spending every Sunday genuflexing to some massive avoda zora nailed up on the wall of the church, taking the ‘sacrament’ at mass….
Again, do you really want to tell me that a Jewish soul, a Jewish family, could be breaking so many massive, core commandments – while totally immersed in idol worship – for over a century, and that wouldn’t leave some very spiritual stains on their neshama?
And btw, that was going on for more like 200 years, but I’m erring on the side of cautious understatement here, for once.
So, in today’s effort to close down some tabs, let’s take a look at some more of these Portuguese Conversos, and where their descendants actually ended up in the apparently ‘ashkenazi’ Jewish world.
Let’s start with the ‘Paradesi Jews’.
You can read all about them HERE, on Wiki, because I’m just going to pick out the more relevant bits in this post, to keep the story moving forward and to avoid overwhelm.
Here’s a truncated summation of the back story:
The East India Company (EIC) wanted to break the monopoly of Portugal in trading with Golconda diamonds and precious stones from the mines of Golkonda. The EIC entered India around 1600 and had built the Fort St. George (White Town) fortress by 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, now known as Chennai.
EIC policy permitted only its shareholders to trade in Golconda diamonds and precious stones from the mines. The Company considered the Madras Jews to be interlopers because they traded separately through their Jewish community connections.
Madras Jews specialised in Golconda diamonds, precious stones and corals. They had very good relations with the rulers of Golkonda and this was seen as beneficial to Fort St. George, so Madras Jews were gradually accepted as honourable citizens of Fort St. George/Madras.
Portugal, and the Portuguese crypto-Jews in particular, were monopolising the trade in Golconda diamonds. The (British) East India Company wanted in on this lucrative business, so initially they saw these Portuguese traders as a threat.
And then they realised that if they could be brought over to the East India Company, they would open all those diamond doors for them.
The leaders of these Portuguese diamond-dealing crypto-Jews in Madras was one Jaime Paiva (also known as Jacques de Paiva).
He nominally belonged to the Sephardic community back in Amsterdam, and was one of the British East India Company’s main contacts, in the Golconda diamond business.
If his name sounds familiar, that’s because I’ve already mentioned him here on the blog.
After Jaime Paiva died, in 1687, his wife, Hieronima became the mistress of none other than Elihu Yale – President of the East India Company settlement in Fort St. George, at Madras – and another crypto-Jew who stayed externally a Welsh / American ‘xtian’.
(I’m still working on the Welsh part of this crypto-Jewish story, it’s even more convoluted than this other stuff. Which is saying something.)
For this post, here’s what I want to focus on, from the Wiki on Hieronima:
After her husband Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia)’s death, she took over her husband’s diamond and coral business.
Under the guardianship of Elihu Yale she traded in her own name and was active as a merchant, having invoices and accounts in her own name, trading in textiles, spices, diamonds and corals.
It appears she also acted as a business agent for Yale, selling supplies embezzled from the East India Company. From 1689, when Yale’s wife returned to England, Catherine Nicks and Hieronima da Paiva acted as the first ladies of the governor’s residence.
A little while ago, I finished reading a (whitewashed…) book called Elihu Yale, Merchant, Collector & Patron to try and glean more information about his crypto-Jewish links.
His ties to the slave trade were totally ignored, but I did learn that Yale was also a freemason, and a member of the Royal Society.
Here’s what else I learned from that book (p157):
“The [Golconda rough diamond] trade was now dominated by England. This development resulted from the decision of the East India Company in 1664 to…permit outsiders to trade in precious stones…which coincided with the settlement in London of Portuguese-Jewish merchants, free to practise their religion there….
“Through the expertise of the Portuguese-Jewish community, London became the centre of the of international diamond trade…[A] petition to the East India Company in 1695 declared: “the business formerly driven by way of Italy of Portugal is now become almost a sole English trade.”
Remember, that back in Europe, many of the Jewish community’s leaders were court factors.
That meant they were engaged by the nobility and royal houses to manage their money and investments; act as international brokers with other countries, and to source things like massive diamonds, gems, corals, and other status symbols, for the nobles, kings and queens.
This gave these Jews a very high level of access to the royal courts – and also made them the defacto leaders of the Jewish communities they were meant to represent.
We’ll come back to this side of the story another time, but many of these ‘court Jews’ were given the concession to ‘tax farm’ their Jewish communities. What this essentially means is that they paid a certain amount of ‘tax’ out of their own pocket to the royal coffers, in return for being able to charge and collect taxes from the Jewish communities under their sway.
And of course, they factored in a hefty increase on the amounts they were charging their brethren, as tax farming was a business, that made rich people richer at the expense of the poor.
And it still is.
But today, let’s stay focussed on the diamonds side of this dirty business, to see where that leads us.
The name of Hieronima da Paiva’s brother was Joseph Almanza. When I started searching for more details about his family, that’s how I got to the Wiki entry on the ‘Paradesi Jews‘, where I learned some more interesting stuff.
“Portuguese Jews were used as diplomats by the East India Company to expand English trading.”
In other words, these Portuguese Conversos, who were so comfortable in the xtian world, and also so skilled in the world of international trade – but who also kept popping in and out of the formal Jewish community, often at the highest levels of those communities – were the ‘glue’ that held these international trade networks together for the non-Jewish rulers.
And they were particularly active in the East India Companies of England, France and Holland.
As well as Jacques de Paiva, there were some other Portuguese Converso merchant names I started looking up, too, including:
- Antonio do Porto,
- Pedro Pereira,
- Fernando Mendes Henriques,
- Bartolomeo Rodrigues,
- Domingo do Porto,
- Alvaro da Fonseca,
- Samuel de Castro,
- Salomon Franco,
- Isaac Sardo Abendana and
- Avraham Navarro.
Like me, you’ve probably never heard of these people before.
But they, and their descendants, have helped shaped history in the Jewish community, and the wider world, for three centuries.
I’m not going to go through all of them in this blog post – and a lot of them have been deliberately erased from ‘official’ Jewish history – but let’s just pick out a few names, to see if we can get a flavor of who they really were, and what they were really up to.
We’ll put the ‘de Porto’ family to one side for now. In other research, it seems that at least one one branch of them morphed in the Gunzburg / Ginsburgh family, and that family line deserves at least one post of its own.
We already know that all these families just keep intermarrying with each other, so I just need one ‘thread’ to come loose, in order to be able to track down more of the extended family members.
And the thread that came loose this time is the ‘De Castro’ family.
Over on Geni, I started HERE, with a member of the De Castro family called Jacob Henriques de Castro. His family are Portuguese converso Jews, who end up in Amsterdam, and then within a few clicks, they also start connecting up to some of the other families we’re looking at here, like the de Pintos, the Henriques and the Pereiras.
How did a Portuguese Converso end up becoming the mother of an ennobled Viennese ‘Heinrich’?
And here is where the story starts to take one of those interesting turns.
Heinrich marries Freifrau Henriette – the daughter of ‘Fanny’ von Arnstein and Baron Nathan Adam von Arnstein.
I never heard of these people before, even though ‘Baron Nathan’ is meant to be a big assimilated Jewish banker who was ennobled in 1798, so I go and look them up. Here‘s a little of what I find (in German…):
[Baron Nathan is the] son of the banker, wholesaler and imperial court factor Ascher Anselm (later Adam) Adam Isak Arnsteiner and Sibylle Gomperz, wife Franziska (Fanny) Itzig (born November 29, 1758 Berlin, † June 8, 1818 in Dreihaus near Vienna), daughter of the banker, factory owner and ironworker Daniel Itzig…
The [Arnsteiner & Eskeles] banking house was decisive for the financial system in Austria for three decades (taking over large government bonds, financial transactions, money lending transactions, army deliveries); it was essential to the establishment of the Oesterreichische Nationalbank (1816; Eskeles became director and vice governor) and the first Austrian savings bank (1819).
The first thing I notice is how similar all this sounds to the activities of the fake-name Rothschilds.
The second thing I notice is the name Daniel Itzig, who has been on my ‘Frankist-Reform’ radar for a long time.
This from Wikipedia:
Itzig was a banker and a mintmaster in partnership with Veitel-Heine Ephraim. Together they leased all the mints in Saxony and Prussia. During the Seven Years’ War they assisted Frederick the Great in debasing the Saxonian currency… Itzig was one of the very few Jews in Prussia to receive full citizenship privileges, as a “Useful Jew”. He became extraordinarily wealthy as a consequence…
In 1761 he began planning a school for poor Jewish boys in Berlin, and in 1778 his son together with [his son-in-law] Daniel Friedlander opened the first “free school” (Freischule) called “Hinuch Neorim”, Hebrew: ‘Teaching the Youth’. The school and adjacent printing house later became one of the main institutions of the Haskalah movement.
Itzig was the official head (‘Oberältester’) of the Jewish community in Berlin from 1764 until his death in 1799.
Daniel Itzig and his son-in-law, David Friedlander, were the leaders of the haskalah movement in Berlin, that quickly morphed into Reform, a generation later. Two of Itzig’s grand-daughters married two of the sons of Moses Mendelssohn.
Let’s take a quick look at Fanny Itzik, his daughter, the mother-in-law of Heinrich Pereira, before we take a closer look at Daniel Itzig’s business partner.
Here’s some of what I learn about her:
In 1814, Fanny von Arnstein introduced a new custom from Berlin, hitherto unknown in Vienna: the Christmas tree.
How’s that for a claim to fame.
Her sister, Caecilie Itzig was married to another assimilated, ennobled, Austrian banker and court Jew called Bernhard von Eskeles.
Bernard’s dad was Rabbi Issachar Berush (1692-1753), who was the son of Gabriel Eskeles, and the son-in-law of another fabulously court Jew / rabbi, Samson Wertheimer.
Before we continue, I want to point out that whenever you come across Jewish families at this particular period of time, and in these locations, where there is such a significant and extreme ‘break’ with orthodox Judaism – it’s always a red flag that you might well be dealing with closet Frankists.
Over on the Jewish Encyclopaedia, we discover a bit more about this branch of the Eskeles clan:
Eskeles was rabbi at Kremsir from 1710 till 1719…
On Sept. 10, 1725, the emperor, Charles VI., named Eskeles “Landesrabbiner” of Hungary… In a decision of 1725 Eskeles signed himself “Issachar Bär of Cracow, rabbi of Nikolsburg and Moravia, Eisenstadt, and Hungary, and of the district of Mayence.” …
When in 1742 a heavy tax was imposed upon the Jews of Moravia, the exertions of Eskeles and Baron d’Aguilar secured its annulment by Maria Theresa. Another decree, banishing in midwinter of 1744-45 the Jews of Bohemia and Moravia because they were suspected of Prussian leanings, was revoked upon the intercession of Eskeles and D’Aguilar.
Here’s a bit more interesting information about R’ Gabriel Eskeles, father of Issachar, and grand-father of Bernhard:
He was married to Esther, daughter of Roza Yollis-Babad.
Here, we get into ‘Kevin Lawrence Hanit’ territory, so there is a lot of deliberate confusion. But at this stage, I can tell you that Roza’s brother is probably R’ Mordechai Yollis.
Mordechai Yollis is married to Hinda Margolis.
And Hinda Margolis is the sister of the notorious Sabbatean-Frankist who openly converted to Catholicism along with Jacob Frank, Elisha Schorr (Wolowsky).
We know that all these ‘Sabbatian-Frankist’ families married into each other, again and again and again.
To put this is simply as possible, Baron Bernhard von Eskeles grandma Esther was the first cousin of one of the most notorious ‘open’ Frankists and senior supporters of Jacob Frank, Elisha Schor.
Ergo, it’s probable the Eskeles family were also Sabbatean-Frankists. And that means the Itzig family may well also have been Sabbatean-Frankists. Which means that Moses Mendelssohn, and David Friedlander – the ‘founders’ of Reform – were probably also Sabbatean-Frankists.
We’ll get back to Daniel Itzig’s (bent…) business partner Veitel Heine Ephraim another time.
Because I want to end this post by taking a closer look at the Baron d’Aguilar, who apparently lobbied for the Jewish community against Maria Therese, together with R’ Gabriel Eskeles.
This comes from Wikipedia:
Baron Diego Lopes Pereira d’Aguilar (born 1699 Portugal; died 10 August 1759, London) was a Portuguese-born London-based Jewish businessman, community leader and philanthropist, originally a Portuguese converso, who lived in the 18th century. He was created a baron of the Holy Roman Empire by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.
In 1722 he went from Lisbon to London, and then to Vienna. From 1725 to 1747 he held the tobacco monopoly in Austria, and had the power to establish factories and regulate prices… D’Aguilar was a great favorite with the empress…
D’Aguilar, who together with his family enjoyed the greatest freedom of belief, was the founder of the Spanish or Turco-Jewish community in Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining many concessions for the relief of his oppressed fellow worshippers….
He left Vienna suddenly in 1749, because the Spanish government demanded his extradition. He went to London.
The first Baron D’Aguilar was married to one Dona Simha da Fonseca – no doubt, related in some way to the ‘Alvarez de Fonseca’ on the list of Paradesi Jewish merchants, listed above.
As I keep trying to show you, it’s a very small gene pool, that all these people actually swim in.
Here’s some interesting stuff about the ‘Pereira’ family:
Pedro Pereira appears on the list of the main leaders of the ‘Paradesi Jews’, quoted way back at the beginning of this article.
One of Shabtai Tzvi’s most ardent – and richest – supporters amongst the Portuguese converso Jewish community in Amsterdam was a merchant by the name of Abraham Pereira (from HERE):
Abraham Pereira, said to be the richest Jew in Amsterdam and certainly a deeply devout man, lent his enormous prestige to the cause and, after publishing a comprehensive book of morals for repentant sinners (La Certeza del Camino, 1666), left with his entourage for the Levant, although he was held up in Leghorn.
(You’ll recall from HERE that Leghorn became a hotbed for Sabbatians, and – not coincidentally – was the home town of Moses Montefiore’s family.)
Baron D’Aguilar’s son, Ephraim Lópes Pereira d’Aguilar, became a naturalised British citizen, and held large tracts of land in America – before his luck changed. He married Simha “Sarah” Mendes da Costa, whose father Moses (or ‘Anthony’) was also pulling the strings behind the Bank of England long before the ‘Rothschilds’ apparently showed up:
Moses Mendes da Costa (died 1747), also called Anthony da Costa, was an 18th-century English banker.
He was so successful as a banker, that he has sometimes been said to have been on the board of the Bank of England; however, although he held shares in the bank, he was not in fact ever a director.
If you check out the Wiki for him, you’ll see that most of Ephraim Lopes Pereira’s descendants married English or Scottish nobility. And that he was also a Freemason.
And the last thing to tell you, to bring this full circle, comes back to our original ‘Pereira’, Heinrich Aron von Pereira-Arnstein, above.
According to THIS:
[Heinrich] Pereira was of Portuguese descent (descendant of Lopez Pereira, * around 1700 Amsterdam, allegedly ennobled by Charles VI); he was adopted by his father-in-law on May 6, 1810. Pereira was one of the most important bankers of the Vormärz and was a leading figure in government bonds.
Lopez Pereira is the same name of the two Barons D’Aguilar.
The Tobacco concession in Austria was also held by the ‘Popper’ family, that I’ve written about extensively HERE and HERE, as being tightly connected with the Frankists, and particularly Moses Dobrushka / Junius Frey.
At this stage, we can sum things up like this:
The same people have been running the show in the Jewish community for centuries.
They marry each other – and always have.
They maintain their grip on their money and power by keeping things ‘in the family’ – regardless of how it appears to outsiders.
They ‘pretend’ to be Jews, when it suits them, and they ‘pretend’ to be xtians – or anything else – when it suits them.
But their agenda is still a Sabbatean-Frankist-Freemason-Antinomian-anti-God-anti-Torah one.
And these people- and their yucky ideas and behaviors – are still to be found all over every part of the Jewish community, and particularly in leadership positions.
But hopefully, not for much longer.
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